Equally, evidence of businesses’ concern for society, today known as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), can be traced back to the Industrial Revolution. In the mid-to-late 1800s, growing criticism of the emerging factory system, working conditions, and the employment of women and children were brought to light. The consensus among reformers was that unfair employment practices were contributing to social problems, including poverty and labour unrest.
The late 1800s also saw the rise of philanthropy. Industrialist Andrew Carnegie, who made most of his fortune in the steel industry, was known for donating large portions of his wealth to causes related to education and scientific research.
In 1953, American economist Howard Bowen introduced the modern concept of Corporate Social Responsibility in his book “Social Responsibilities of the Businessman”, which advocated for business ethics and responsiveness to societal stakeholders.